Studio Production Course

Dr. Ted HomePage   Audioboard Practice Sessions


New Film in Production see script:

Brooklyn Orthodontist Ted Rothstein demonstrates laser gum reshaping Gingivectomy

Airing on BCAT:April 3, 2012, 10pm-- Dr. Ted Presents: 36th Year Practicing Orthodontics Anniversary Party

Airing on YouTube October 30, 2012


New Temporary Location of BCAT: 242 3rd St. (B63 stops at 3rd St.) BCAT is right next to STAPLES

THE PANASONIC*** AG-HMC80 AVCCAM  HD/SD (Advanced Video Coding High Definition)
ssuming I have been given correct information regarding the new digital camera being used at BCAT,
I located this 6 page PDF guide to using it: 021112

Here are the links to the manual for the "panasonici AG-HMC 80PS:
Download camera manual vol. 1 | Download camera manual vol. 2

In addition, I found  nice site showing the camera from eight different views:



See Photos and Videos of First Day of Legal Same-sex Marriages in NY by Dr. Ted Rothstein, Orthodontist
Going to the Chapel of Love--as sung by the Dixie Cups


Orthodontic Jaw Wiring OJW TM Documentary for Dental Professionals
by Dr. Ted Rothstein a 28-minute video airing June 7 2011 [SCRIPT and FILM]



(Provide by BCAT a division of  BRICONLINE

                                      (Taught by Victor Arnez, teacher, actor and producer: March 17-April 3, 2008)


 “The WALL box”

As experienced by novice student Dr. Ted Rothstein

  Certificate for "Remote / Non Linear Film Editing


(and  here is the link that takes you to Avid digital film editing software tutorials

See especially: AVID Pro HD which is the course taught at BCAT

                408 pages of Xpress Pro AVID basics editing Guide


The Avid Keyboard Shortcuts   Dr Ted learning notes


Glossary of TV, Video film and audio terms:   Glossary 1   Glossary 2     Mini Glossary


First Show: "Drted Presents:©"   


DrTed Presents:  A health documentary on placing braces, a prequel to "Removing Braces" (YouTube)


All about the BCAT Mini studio:       Protocol for Dr. Ted Present: first guest: Angel Wings from Heaven
Dr. Ted Presents: MiniStudio #1 with Patrick Metivier on Sunday June 7, 12noon- 2pm


Settings for the Sony HDV2  DV Camera

  TELEVISION PRODUCTION  A free interactive course in studio and Field Production by Ron Whittaker, PhD
Index of TV Production Modules           TV Production Readings and Information


See my BCAT Studio Production Training Certificate Below :-)          The blurb about me in the BCAT chatter quarterly newsletter


The Mackie 8.b CONSOLE  AudioMixer  Essentials-- Ver. Dr. Ted


Shows I helped produced


The WALL box contains a panel of 16 female ports all embedded within the wall that separates the studio from the control room.   The WALL box in the (teaching studio) enables the audio and visual signals generated in the studio by the microphones and cameras to pass into the control room where they can be attenuated or strengthened and combined and finally recorded as a "production" for broadcasting in real time or at a later date on:

BCAT 1 TimeWarner Cable Channels 34 35 36

Cablevision  67
68 69  

 RCN  82 83 84

 Verizon  42 43 44      



Sounds (voice and music)  and images recorded from video cameras in the studio are electronically transmitted through the "WALL BOX"  to instruments inside the control room that choose, measure, channel and modulate its volume so that they can be combined and recorded on tape/CD/DVD  allowing it then  to be "edited" to produce  a final audio-visual production suitable for entertainment and /or education. The crew of the control use their equipment to refine the incoming audio visual signals so that the production is as close to the producer's desired end product as is possible (VTR-R  (record).  Nowadays that end product is more likely to be a DVD.


If you get “garbage” coming in thru the WALL box you will get garbage being produced on the  VTR-R/DVD tape deck.




Floor Manager

Floor manager: (and each camera operator as well) wears a head set (intercom) linked in to the control room allowing him to listen to commands/orders given buy the director in the control room, which is sound proof  and apart from the studio floor. A large glass window separates the control room and the studio floor. it allows some hand communication between operators in the control room and the personnel and talent in the studio where the cameras are filming.  The director conveys his wishes to the floor manger who executes them by hand signals to the host (producer of the show) and other crew members on the floor. Each camera person can hear directions to focus/move cameras to capture desired views. The Director provides the directions to crew as individuals or a group using the buttons on the COM box inside the control room. (4 buttons to talk; 4 buttons to listen; as well as “talk all” and “listen all”.)


Operator for Movable CAMERA 1

Takes directions from the Director and the floor manager to obtain the various shots the Director orders, for example: Pan rt/lt; Zoom in/out; move camera rt/lt: in/out; tilt camera up/down, "truck" right or left (moving camera on its rolling pedestal sideways and "Dolly" forward or back (moving camera on its rolling pedestal forward or back.


Operator for Movable CAMERA 2

Takes directions from the Director and the floor manager for the various shots the Director orders: Pan rt/lt; zoom in/out; move camera rt/lt: in/out; tilt camera up/down: Camera 2 sees the talent from another perspective (as above).


Operator of the Lighting Board

Has control of 2 banks of lights about 20 of them altogether which can light the talent and the set so the camera can capture the images of the talent and the host clearly and colorfully.


Host (announcer/interviewer)

The Host of an interview show is most often the Producer of the show.



(Performer(s) and/or person(s) being interviewed).


Floor-safety person to manage electric wires sprawling on the floor


Liaison person to attend to and manage the needs and movements of the talent waiting in the wings outside the studio




The WALL box

There are two WALL boxes; one is located on each side of the teaching studio.
It is the electrical interface box connecting all audio, and camera equipment in the studio to the equipment in the control room.  It facilitates the transfer of audio-visual electrical signals between the studio floor (crew/equipment) and the control room (director/crew) and vice-versa. All electrical lines  connect into this box including the lines from the Video- Monitor, Intercoms (headset-intercoms), the teleprompter and host-talent mikes. The ports  in the Wall Box are all female and they are numbered sequentially. The numbers correspond to "channel strips" on the Audio Board. For example,  microphones are plugged in to red ports. The microphone plugged in to the red port #1 sends its signal in to channel strip #1 of the Audio Board in the Control Room where its audio qualities can be controlled for final recording.


XLR cables and XLR extensions cable, BNC cables, Microphones, Head sets and Communication (“Com”) boxes.


Each camera person and the floor manager wears a headset plugged into a "com" (communication) box hanging at their side, which connects to the “WALL box” via LXR cables (with male pronging).


 A “daisy chain connection” between the COM boxes that each crew member who is wearing a headset can be established. This permits persons on the studio floor to talk to each other. Each individual’s Com- XLR` cable connects to the WALL BOX at the sockets labeled “INTERCOM”.


Moveable digital video Camera 1


Moveable digital video Camera 2


The Unmanned (robotic) Camera

Usually called Camera #3; it is controlled by the operator of the “Robotic Camera Control Box” in the control room and subject to the directives of the Director (as are Camera 1 and Camera 2). It is placed typically between Camera 1 and Camera 2.


The Video Monitor

A large movable video monitor screen in the studio permitting the crew to view what is being filmed by the three cameras. It’s images are simultaneously being shown on the “Program” Monitor (labeled the “PGM”) in the control room.


The monitor: is set up at the start of production and shows what is being “TAKEN” at each moment of preparation for filming and during the actual filming of the production. It connects to a power source. It receives its images by means of a “BNC” cable (colored ORANGE) that is connected to “yellow” jack on the monitor and connects at the other end to one of the ports on the “WALL box” called the “Remote” port. The cable’s male part attachment rotates in to place when being attached in to the WALL box.


Lighting Control Board

Consists of two banks of lights that can control the 20 or so lights, mounted in the studio ceiling, individually and collectively. The board folds out of a column when being used.





The director controls all.  He is the “conductor of the orchestra” He controls the tempo, volume and accuracy of the incoming and outgoing audio and visual signals that will be recorded on the VTR-R.


When the director gives the order to “Roll tape” the Recorder-Box operator hits the Play-Record buttons.


The director orders all the previews and takes and shapes the “look” of the production by constantly monitoring the. Finally he ends the show.


He controls the “lower third” name tags appearing and the look of the transitions (dissolve, fade etc) between “takes”.


The director sets the “tone” of the action and guided the activities of the studio and control room crew. He set the initial views of all the cameras.


The director pays strict attention to what the camera “sees” Are the curtains  (called cycloramas...Cykes for short) and typically blue or black) closed and smooth? Are all extraneous cables out of view? Are all camera views in proportion? Are the lights set at the right intensity? Have all extraneous sounds been eliminated?


The Director gives direction to the crew (see below) by directly talking to them. He talks to the crew on the studio floor individually or as a group by use of the control-room mike.


His main communication is with the Floor Manager. He can also talk to each camera operator, or the host (producer) or the talent. He does this through the control room microphone which extends 18 inches from its “source” box. The source box has on its console 4 “talk” buttons and below them 4 “listen” buttons, one for each floor crew person They hear him through their headsets. To the left of those buttons is a "talk-to-all" button and a "listen-to-all" button.


SWITCHER BOX OPERATOR (also called the "TD")
(He “previews” and “takes” the various camera shots ordered by the director).

  Description of the switcher box and how it functions: (updated 10/9/09)
Three rows of 7 keys each:
 ASSIGN K1, K2        Top O       O              O                          O            O            O             O    
 TAKE                         Mid O       O             O                           O            O            O             O    
 PREVIEW                   Bot O       O             O                           O            O            O             O

                                 Black   Bars/tone    Cam1/Util. (robotic)  Cam 2    Cam3     Cam 4     Char-Gen. 
                                                                                AND  3 rows of three keys
                                                                         Top O   BKGD           O K1                 O K2
                                                                         Mid O   Diss.               O Wipe             O DVE (diag)
                                                                         Bot O   CUT-TAK      O Auto Trans    O No Name
                                                                        AND Large-handle FADER LEVER
Before you there are 4 mini- monitors showing what each camera is viewing AND
two large screen monitors: the PVW monitor  and to the right of it the PGM monitor
the PVW permits the director  and the TD to preview what ever camera he plans to appear  on the monitor (PGM) which is
recording the action (interview,singer dancer etc.)
Director says: "Preview C1": switcher taps C1 key in the bottom row
Director says : :Take C1": switcher tapS  C1 key in the middle row or taps CUT-TAK button or pushes FADER UP-FORWARD
(pulling the fader down always shuttles back to the PVW monitor: pushing the fader forward always shuttles from the PVW  back to the PGM recording monitor
Director than says "Preview C2": switcher taps C2 key on bottom row
Director says : "Take C2": switcher taps  C2 button in middle row or taps CUT-TAK button or pushes FADER UP-FORWARD
(pulling the fader down always shuttles back to the PVW monitor: pushing the fader forward always shuttles from the PVW  back to the PGM recording monitor
 Previewing a slate on the character Generator: While the PGM screen is recording one of the cameras
                Have the slate selected on the PC of  the Character Generator.
                Select the CG key (bottom row) and the image will appear on the PVW monitor
Director than says "Preview the CG": switcher taps CG button on bottom row
Director say : "Take CG": switcher taps  CG button in middle row or taps CUT-TAK button or pushes FADER UP-FORWARD
(pulling the fader down always shuttles back to the PVW monitor: pushing the fader forward always shuttles from the PVW  back to the PGM recording monitor
Alternatively the director could simply say: "take cam 3", "then say: "take cam 1" without saying "preview cam 1"
The 3x3 key-rows had keys that automatically produce certain effects like dissolving or wiping as one changes from Camera to Camera
The TOP row of the 6 key by 3 row panel works in coordination with the TOP row of the 3x3 keys panel:
You may assign any of the keys on the top row of 3x7 to the  K1 or K2 key of the 3x3 panel. So that when you strike the assigned K key on it places the assigned function on the PGM screen
Example: Push the CG key (top row 7th key) then assign it to the K1 key on (push the K1 key)
Henceforth when you activate the K1 key you cause the active slate on the CG to appear on the PGM.
To preview on the PVW monitor slate over what a camera is recording:
C1 off                             CG on (active red)     K1 on (active red lit)
C1 on (active red)            CG off
C1 on (active red)            CG  off
 In this mode you can shuttle PVW ---PGM---PVW WITH USING THE CUT-TAK KEY OR THE LEVER FADER
To preview a chosen Cam (1 for example):
C1 off                             
C1 on (active red)           
C1 on 
[SPECIAL NOTE]  The above info regarding the switcher was posted October 15, 2010; Upon returning to the mains studio control room  11/10/10, I observed the a different switcher box had been placed. The console layout was a bit different than the one described above]
NEW INFORMATION: The switcher console also has a row of buttons that permit the operator to change from one Camera view to another camera view much in the same way your cars windshield sweep/wipe away the the rain.  There are 10 buttons from which the operator can choose if he wants to use a "wipe" effect when switching from one camera view to another camera view. These buttons let the operator select  the direction and type of wipe (vertical wipe, horizontal wipe, etc.) Here is how it works: Camera 3 is rolling...Director says: "Preview Camera 2" then director says "Take camera 2"  The switcher then moves the large "fader" lever forward  (or back depending on its present position) and the wipe will then wipe away camera 3 and make camera 2 the active camera. It should take about one second to move the fader to its new position. Here is something good to know: if the switcher moves the fader arm just halfway he will create a "split screen" screen effect, i.e. half the PGM screen will be showing what camera 3 is viewing and and the other half of the PGM monitor will then be showing what Camera 2 is viewing.  Still another button on the console is "Fade to black": Here is and example of its use: The Camera 3 (or any camera) is rolling. The segment being filmed is about to end and the speaker in the film says his last word at which point the director will say: "fade to black" at that point the operator pushes down the "fade to black button and the image on the PGM monitor fades to's that simple. It's just another way of bringing the curtain down and ending the show.
Some tips that are useful:

1. When the microphones have been assigned to their individual channels the AB operator should lay down a piece of white tape spanning the distance between the first and last mic channel and write on the tape the name of the person who will be using that mic channel. For example: channels 5678 have been assigned to bob on channel 5, carol on channel  6,  ted on channel 7 and alice on channel 8. You would then place white paper marked bob...carol...ted...alice along the bottom of the AB board at the bottom of the channels to which their mics were assigned. This is very useful when you are calibrating the volume level for each individual who is going to speak during the show/filming.
2. Upon entering the control room you might see that all the monitors are showing "Color bars"  To turn them off and turn the cameras on you must press two small white buttons on the upper right corner of the "Camera Control Console".  and then toggle down the mini steel switch farthest to the right of the  four switches that are present for each of the two main floor cameras.
3. Control room operations include: Setting the VTR decible level control to 20, Making sure you have placed a DVD recording disc in the DVD. Making sure to start the DVD disc to record by hold the little red button down until you see "003 in the window of the machine. "FINALIZING" the DVD at the end of the shoot by pressing a special sequence of buttons on the DVD remote (get sequence from BCAT assistant if you don't not know it).
4. Boosting control room volume when the TRIM switch, FADERS and "CONTROL ROOM" volume control switches (in the Master Input-Output section of the AB) are unable to raise the volume of a channel's output:  Assume mics for Ted and Alice are assigned to channels 7 and 8... and their  "R_L Mix" buttons are down.  You push the "assign (to buses)7-8" button (see alongside the Fader lever (see page 6 of Mackie Manual ). Then you press the two "assign switch to L-R mix" buttons (just above the faders 7 an 8 in the "Master Control" section of the AB (see page 10 of Mackie Manual ). These faders (of the 7-8 bus) are now enabled to use as volume controllers to raise and lower the volume of ted's ch. 7, and alice's  ch. 8  voice being heard in the control room
5. For  mics other than "wireless mics") the "Mic-Line" button is UP  and the "FLIP" button is up.
6. It is possible to create an effect where the host/talent of show is seen seated in front of a background photo (for example a city skyline). How is this done?  First the photo has to imported
into the Character generator and incorporated as a "Slate"  The slate has to be selected onto the CG screen.  The switcher box (in the main control room
must be set as follows: This can only be done for Cameras 3 and 4 because they are run in a digital format The robot cameras 1 and 2 are run in an analog format. Now the "CHROMA" key must be ON "chroma key mode". the chroma Key must be assigned to  "Key 1"  There are three knobs that must be tweaked to get the color right:  1. Hue transp  2 Gain  3. Clip   There is still another button called "reverse" which is used to bring the images to the front or to the back of one another. The desired effect will work only with Cam 3 and cam 4 is on the program monitor.




(He pushes the Play–Record buttons at the Director’s order to “ROLL TAPE” thereby channeling all Audio-Visual signals in to the VTR-R where they are recorded on tape.



(commonly called the MIXER)

This crew member also operates the CD tape/music deck

This person also starts the production filming by pushing the small white button on the centrally located COM control panel at the moment the Recorder Box Operator says “TAPE IS ROLLING…WE HAVE SPEED”.



(He creates and generates all text that appears on the PGM screen)



(He prepares all script text for the host and talent to read from the TP)






SIX MINI-SCREEN MONITORS (the six "minis" are located in the teaching studio) which monitor events in the control room: 1 2 3 4 5 6. (They are labeled). The director  is constantly monitors them and uses them to decide which studio floor camera he is going to use to make the next  "shot" or "take".

#1  To monitor the VTR-S (Sound)

#2   To monitor the VTR- R  (This is what the Recorder Box Operator is watching to see if the VTR-R(ecorder) recorder tape is rolling at the correct speed  i.e. 30 frames per second.)

#3   To monitor “BARS” (for control of color)

#4   Monitors Camera 1

#5   Monitors Camera 2

#6   Monitors Camera 3 (the robotic camera)

The monitors shown in the photos are the ones located in the BIG STUDIO CONTROL ROOM



They are located on the desk beneath the six mini-screens mounted on the wall. They permit correction of the amount of light passing through the lens of the cameras and control of “depth of field” of the camera lens.


VTR-S (sound) and the VTR-R (record) control boxes (“decks”).

These two decks sit on the floor just behind crew member who is operating the SWITCHER.

The VTR-R begins recording the production when the Director says “ROLL TAPE” and the Recording Box Operator responds “TAPE IS ROLLING…WE HAVE SPEED”.

The VTR-S is recording all sounds captured by the Audio Board operator.




The bottom row of buttons lets you preview on the PVW monitor screen what each camera is looking at: These buttons include: CAM1,CAM2, CAM3,  BLACK screen, BARS ("UTILITY") button, CG (character generator).


To the right of these buttons is a stand alone “TAKE” button and the ? button. There are also a KEY1 and "Transition" button, and a “Fader” arm/lever with little sequential green lights to indicate that the effect is happening when dissolving to “Black”.


[NOTE]  In addition to the bottom row of PREVIEW buttons there is a row of identical buttons just above it. These buttons also function as TAKE buttons.  for the identical button below it.


The director will say “Give me camera 1”  The SWITCHER responds by hitting the "CAM1" button which causes the image being seen by camera 1 to project in the Control room on the Preview Screen Monitor (labeled the “PVW”).




This little (10" x 6"), but oh so important, box is connected to the VTR-R deck which records the incoming audio-visual data. Its control buttons “Play” and “Record” buttons start the VTR-R tape recording. It records whatever the PGM monitor is  capturing from the cameras. It has Stop and Rewind functions as well.


To activate it the operator needs to hit the RED RECORD and RED PLAY BUTTON on top of the box.  If he fails to do that when the director says "Roll Tape" woe to that recording control box operator.


It sits on the desk to the right of the SWITCHER. At the order to "Roll Tape" the person in charge/control of this box hits the "Play" and "Record" buttons and announces ”Tape Rolling”  When he sees the digital frame counter on mini-monitor # 2 is "rolling"  he announces to the control room Director and crew "Tape is rolling…we Have Speed".  See also the ABO below




It seems easy, but looks are deceiving. In brief it consists of a big black button to control camera’s focus and a "Joy" stick to robotically cause the camera  to pan left and right and zoom in and out etc.






The script projected on the TP computer screen is created by MS software


The software is initiated by clicking on an ICON on the PC desk top called "WinCue LT"


You can download prepared script material on the PC’s screen. The screen shows 4-5 words per line and 5 lines per screen. The letters are about 1’ hi and 1’’ wide.


The lines are best read double spaced. You can input original material to the screen from the keyboard.


Host and Talent can view this material on the large teleprompter screen directly attached to the front of the camera.


The speed of rolling the TP script forwards (or backwards) is controlled by a large black round switch mounted on top of the hand-control stick.


There are two button controls on the side of the hand-controller:  One sets the script to start and the other starts the script rolling so that it appears on the TP screen in front of the host and talent.


The operator of the TP roll-speed must pay attention to the host and talent; If the host pauses he should pause, and if the host speeds up he may have to increase the roll-speed as well.


The operator of the TP either gets an order from the director to begin rolling the script “…at 45321” or he begins rolling at the moment the host-talent begins speaking. It’s not a daunting instrument to learn.




The ABO responds to the Recording Control Box Operator when he announces “TAPE IS ROLLING…WE HAVE SPEED” by pushing the “WHITE START BUTTON” on the lower right corner of the centrally located COM box just to the left of the AB.


The ABO responds to the Director’s orders “Bring down/up the music” or “Bring down/up some audio effect that is part of the production."


The ABO is given the CD which contains the music tracks that will accompany the film (almost always at the beginning and the end of the production).


ABO places the CD in the deck (see the “open-close” button) cues the CD to the correct track and on the Directors command “…54321” pushes the “PLAY” button and simultaneously moves the CD fader forward (slowly/rapidly) to the “0” mark. The “ON” button must be green. It is located about  4 inches from the bottom of the board.


On the order to “Bring music down” the operator pulls the fader lever all the way back to its start position and turns OFF the green button by hitting it again. Then he cues the CD recorder to play at the track that will be used the next time music is called for by the director.


DESCRIPTION OF THE AUDIO BOARD (AB)  (the one shown in the photo  is located in the BIG STUDIO CONTROL ROOM),  However, the one described below is located in the Teaching Control room.



                  [Special Note]:

                  I am indebted to Gary  Popkin, a certified BCAT producer, (* who generously sent me a 72-page
                  instruction manual on the use of the Mackie** AudioBoard which is comparable to the audio board (sound mixer) used in the big
                  studio control room at BCAT. 
 He shared it with me b/c  I expressed an interest in learning more about this formidable-looking machine.
                  You may download the 72 page Mackie Manual here.

                  *Hardfire is a libertarian cable-TV political discussion program, produced in Brooklyn, NY, by Gary Popkin.
                   You can view Hardfire on Brooklyn cable on Tuesdays at 9PM Eastern Time on Time-Warner channel 35

                   and Cablevision channel 68. Hardfire is also live-streamed on Channel 2 on the Internet at the same time.
                  ** Mackie Design Inc. : 16220 Wood-Red Rd NE, Woodinville, WA 98072 USA 800 898 3211  Email:


                  [Special Note]:



                  The AB is not for sissies. It looks formidable, however do not be intimidated by it. The teachers will show you its basic functions which in fact are
                  posted at the bottom of of each of the most frequently used  "channels".


The AB has 8 input “channels” on its left half. The first three channels receive the weak audio signals from mikes 1 2 and 3


The 8th channel receives and controls the input signals of CD tape deck (music) and other audio signals.


Each channel has multiple controls buttons to adjust the hi, mid and low frequency sounds/signals so as to give them a “bright” sound (as oppose to a “flat” sound).


The top most control button on each channel is called is called the “GAIN” control and works in conjunction with the fader at the bottom of the AB. It assists in volume-control (amplifying and modifying the signal).


There is also a small “ON” button that must be ON (Green) to enable the channel to  “operate” on the audio signals.


All 3 mike faders may be controlled at once by have all three fingers on them they will always be pushed to “0” when the talent-host is speaking.


Sound testing in the control room is done by having each person wearing a mike on the studio floor count down from 20. This allows the ABO to assign a mike channel to each person and then make adjustments to the speaker’s voice so that the sound is “clear” in the high, medium and low frequency ranges.



              The AB is composed of "channels" (strips) which receive electronic audio signals. The many knobs and controls you see on each strip can control
                  various aspects of the sound that it is receiving.. Just to name a few you already know (volume, treble, bass).   Every single microphone or sound source
                  is electronically connected to its own channel. That is why this machine looks so formidable. (three singer and seven instrument require 10 channels
                  i.e. 10 microphones.  However the buttons and knobs on each channel strip ARE IDENTICAL and have identical functions in so
                  far as they are capable of altering the quality of the sound that that is being recorded:
 You may learn about the qualities of Audio signals
                  that can be manipulated with the control knobs and buttons on the channel strip by clicking (HERE). You  may also see the specific description
                 of the control knobs and buttons of a single channel by going to
 The Mackie 8.b CONSOLE  AudioMixer  Essentials-- Ver. Dr. Ted for location of
                 switch and knob names) (see Pp 10 and 11 and below Pp. 11,12, 13 for detailed explanations of what they do. The job of the AB technician is to
                 make each channel of sound its "best" to that when all the channels are "mixed" (combined) the resulting is as beautiful as it can be.
                 And when the sound is combined with the video the result is the show you get to see and enjoy.
                 See chart of the range of frequencies of all instruments including the piano and the human voice.
(Sound frequency chart in landscape view PDF)
Mackie Manual ): To the right of the channel strips is a section called the "Master Section (see P. 4 of the MM). It consists of 8 BUS faders (4 paired)
                labeled 1-8 from left to right and one more fader to the far right called the Master Section Output Fader. Supposing the voices of four singers who
                each have a mics are connected to channels 3,4, and 5 and 6 on the AB. The AB operator can "assign  each of those
                4 channels (mics)  i.e.give control to a single pair of buses. (See MM p4) He can choose for example to assign  the four mics to bus pair 5-6. He does this
                by pressing the 5-6 button to the right of the 3,4 5 and 6 channel faders. This allows him to control the qualities (volume) of the four singers with  the 2 faders
                Marked 5 and 6 in the master control panel. Indeed he can control the volume just by using using the Master Section Output Fader alone.
                Located just above the MS faders are the flashing green light meters that tell the AB operator if the volume is too low or too high. He can use
                the faders to adjust the strength of the volume. Moreover,  he has a right and left "VU meter" at the top of MS with  moving needle pointers that
               also tell him if the strength is to weak or too strong. They "dance" in coordination with the green metering lights.




He makes the production audio/music play on orders from the Director and makes sure that all audio input sources from the studio floor crew, host and talent and camera staff are audible and of good quality for recording on the VTR-R.


He also “starts” the show by pushing the white START button on the centrally located COM box when the words “Tape is rolling...We have speed” are spoken by the person in charge of the Recording Box. This action starts the show and the VTR-R to begin recording.
download the 72 page Mackie Manual here




The operator’s first action is to set the “TONE” level. This requires his manipulation of adjustment buttons, levers and control knobs on the last channel on the right half of the AB. He begins by pushing forward both white handled fader levers to “0”  and adjusting the top-most red ”oscillator” knob so that the volume of the TONE never causes the flashing indicator lights to light red (green and orange are OK). The operator never touches the oscillator again.  The AB is now balanced.


When the Director says “We will be going to BARS and TONE in 5 4 3 2 1” at “1” the ABO hits the “ON” button on that channel and a tone sounds in the control room. When the Director says “We are recording BARS and TONE for the next 20 seconds the “ABO” counts down 20 seconds on the control room clock and hits the “ON” button again to stop the tone from sounding.


There are other audio board such as the AUX (outside) knob found  toward the top of the channel and AUX (inside) towards bottom of line in this channel




The Character Generator equipment is used to generate the opening titles, closing credits and names of people appearing on camera.  Each screen of information that is produced on its screen is called a “SLATE”. (For example, the name/title of the production, beginning credits, the end of the film credits, the names of people appearing on screen. you can see the CG 4.1 manual by clicking on this link (CG 4.1 link to CG Manual PDF).


Slate/text information can be made to overlay whatever the camera is filming.


The CG is a word processor (Software program CGS 4.1.1) . So the operator can generate words with various attributes, position and style. The operator can also control the rolling speed of the titles and credits by adjusting the number of the frames allowed for the credits to roll   (for ex., if operator chooses 60 frames the credits slate will roll by in 2 seconds. If he chooses 300 frames the credit will roll by in 10 seconds.


The CG operator can program the order of the appearance of the SLATES.


When the CG operator creates each SLATE he saves them to the name of the show he is generating the slates for.


He mouse-clicks each slate the Director asks to be shown. For example, when the Director says  “Preview Slate #4” the CG operator mouse-clicks on Slate #4 and when the Director says “Take it” the SWITCHER hits the “TAKE” button causing that slate to appear on the Program Screen Monitor. (PGM).



In actuality the entire set of remarks below takes about two minutes of time in the Control room.


Director begins: “Quiet on the set !”


D: “Floor manager, are you ready?”

            (Manager responds “Ready”.


D: “Crew are you ready?”
(Crew must respond “Ready”)


D: “Roll tape!”
(Person in charge of the Play-Record box hits the RED PLAY” and “ RED RECORD” buttons.)


Recording Box Operator: “Tape is rolling…we have speed.” responds the Recording Box operator when he sees the tape frame counter running on mini-monitor 2 at which point  the ABO operator pushes the “WHITE  button to begin recording the studio production on the VTR-R deck).


D: ”We are recording black for the next 30 seconds.”

(The SWITCHER hits the button that says “BLACK” causing black to appear on the PVW and the PGV screen for thirty seconds.


D: “We are going to BARS and TONE in 5 4 3 2 1”

(at “1”, the SWITCHER operator hits the button that says “UTILITY” causing COLORED BARS to appear on the PVW and PGV screens AND the ABO operator pushes the “ON” button on the last channel of the AB which causes a TONE to sound in the control room.


D: “We will be recording BARS and TONE for the next 30 seconds”

(The BARS and are seen on the monitors the TONE is heard for the next thirty seconds through the sound room amplifiers).


D: “We will be going to black in 5 4 3 2 1.”

(The SWITCHER  hits the “ BLACK” button causing blackness to appear on the PGM screen. The ABO person hits the “ON” button again causing the TONE to shut off.


D: “Give me first slate.” (the Title slate)

            (The CG operator mouse-clicks on the SLATE with the Title on it and the Title appears on the PVW monitor.


D: “Preview first Slate.”

(The SWITCHER hits the button marked "CG SLATE" causing the title to appear on the PVW screen.)


D: “Play music”

(The ABO hits the play button on the tape deck and moves the fader upward to the 0 position..."the "Normal" balanced sound position)


D: “Take first slate”

(The SWITCHER hits the “SET-TAKE” button causing the Title to appear on the PGM monitor screen).


D: “Bring in music”

(ABO hits the PLAY button on the CD player causing the intro music to be heard in the control room (and is being recorded) and moves the Fader levers on channel 8 forward to “0”


D: “Give me second slate.”
(the CG operator mouse-clicks on the 2nd SLATE) causing  the slate to be ready for viewing on the PVW.


D: “Take second slate”

(The SWITCHER hits the SET-TAKE button causing the contents of the second slate to appear on the PGV screen.


D: “Floor manager we will be going to camera 3 in 10, 9…”
(And the floor manager continues counting down to 1)


D: “Preview camera 3”
(SWITCHER hits the CAM3 button causing preview monitor to show what camera 3 is viewing).


D: “Bring down music”
(The ABO person slides the fader on channel 8 back all the way causing the music to be inaudible and hits the “ON” button again to prevent music sound from being accidentally played again.


D: “Bring up sound”
The ABO pushes forward the faders on channels 1 and 2 up to the “0” mark allowing the host and the talent to be heard in the control room and to be “on air”.


D: “Take Camera 3”
(The SWITCHER hits the SET-TAKE button causing the images of camera 3 to appear on the PGM screen.

                     The host/announcer of the show speaks the first words reading from the TELEPROMPTER… “Good morning and welcome to the BADA-BLlNG show…”


The Director is at liberty to give orders to use the “TRANSITION” AND “DISSOLVE BUTTONS AND SLOW-FAST TO BLACK FADER LEVER and other video effects available on the switcher box.




D: “Preview Camera (1)”


D: “Take Camera (1)”


D: “Preview Character Generator (slate with name)”

 (CG operator has already prepared slate with name; CG operator mouse-clicks on the “SLATE” with the name of host or talent to appear on the PVW screen).


D: “Key 1”

(SWITCHER hits KEY1 button enabling a name-over-image effect to appear on the program screen)


D: “Take Key 1”
(SWITCHER hits the SET-TAKE button causing host’s or talent’s name to appear on the PGV with host’s or talent’s image).


The Director continues to request PREVIEWS and TAKES of each camera according to his creative desires. He uses the switcher’s capabilities to move between the three studio cameras using the switcher’s various transition effect buttons (dissolve fade overlay). By doing so he enhances the viewer’s experience of the production.




D: “Preview CAM 3”

(SWITCHER hits CAM 3 button.)


D: “Preview Credits SLATE“
(CG operator clicks on the credits SLATE preconfigured to roll for 10 seconds


D: “Play Music”
(ABO hits the CD ON button on the CD deck, and hits the MUTE (button up) See P. 10 #2 (Dr.Ted Mackie manual)  on channel 15 and 16 and slides the fader on channel 15 and 16  forward  to the raise the volume.

             The Mackie 8.b CONSOLE  AudioMixer  Essentials-- Ver. Dr. Ted


D: “Take CAM 3”
(The SWITCHER hits the SET-TAKE button and Camera 3’s image appears on the PGV screen monitor.)


D: “Bring down sound.”
(The ABO pulls the Faders on channels one and two back to their start position.)


D: “Bring up music.”
(The ABO pushes the fader on channel 8 forward to the 0 position.)


D: “Take credits SLATE”

(The SWITCHER hits the CG key and the SET (TAKE) key


D: “Fade slowly to BLACK”

(The SWITCHER pulls the Fade-to-Black lever back ( or forward) causing the PVG screen to fade to black , and the Recording Control Box operator turn off the VTR-R and the VTR-S recorders).


D: “That’s a wrap, thank you crew”.


April 7, 2008

Dr. Ted Rothstein

Specialist in Cosmetic Orthodontics

And Orthodontic Jaw Wiring for Weight loss/Control

35 Remsen St.

Brooklyn, NY  11201

718 852 1551


Photos by Sam



Shows I helped produced


June 25,  Assist Producer Aidan Doyle at BCAT studio  show "On Da Money": in charge of "Robotic Camera"

See: On Da Money Aidan Doyle: A story based on my personal experiences with Aidan Doyle

July 15,  Assist Producer Gloria Woods at BCAT Studio show: Family values: Operator of Studio Camera

July 27,  Assist Producer to Karen Callier at BCAT studio on Impress Live production: in charge of "Camera Switching"

August 21,  Assist Producer Ruperto Davis as sole person in Studio (Floor Manager)...Ruperto sole person in Control room

August 25, Assist Producer Gary Popkin at AudioBoard.

October 23, Groove Master's Show*: by Wesley Watson; Dir. Patrick Metivier, AudioBoard Gary Popkin, and Host Wally Gator Watson 28min (CG operator) and (CG equipment) Dr. Ted.  The host- producer of this production is Wally Gator Watson who has been my teacher on previous occasion.  Wally knows his craft as you can judge by the planning that precedes his shoots.  See the Studio Floor Plan he prepares showing the layout and positioning of the equipment, props and talent/guests that were the focus of his work on the shoot I helped with.  Then go see the PDF I posted of his plan for shooting the 28 minute show second by second.  Producers and students at BCAT have in Wally a wonderful example of a true craftsman

January 15, 2009: Production assistant 2 episodes on the Real Linda Show with Lin Ann: back-up mini -camera operator and Studio Camera 4

March 5,  Real Linda show: Airs Saturday; Floor Manager and Camera 3 operator. And Guest on the Subject of Small Claims Court See March 5 at Site Additions by Date.

* Tuesdays a 12 Noon TW Ch. 34; Cablevision Ch. 67 in Brooklyn, NY and   (Ch. 1).
October 5, 2010  Camera operator: Across the Aisle. A production of  Saquan Jones. You can access this link to watch past episodes of Across The Aisle (  The show is 28 minutes long with each segment being 9 minutes each.
October 9, 2010 Camera operator: the Rasheed  Hafeez Show (see my space vid) [Special Note: The main studio "shoot" was canceled
because except for Rasheed and myself all his other production assistants were unable to be present. Instead I used the three hours to
to practice using the
SWITCHER BOX and the CHARACTER GENERATOR : A summary of my work that day can be seen ABOVE.
October 20,  2010  Camera operator: Across the Aisle. A production of  Saquan Jones.   (  The show is 28 minutes long with each segment being 9 minutes each.
November 11,  2010  Technical Director (Switcher Box) operator and Assistant AudioBoard: Across the Aisle. A production of  Saquan Jones.   ( 
November 15,  Living Life with Liza (premier of show about Soap operas):  Standby, Camera, Switcher, AudioBoard

 BCAT produces a newsletter every three-six months featuring their new producers.  The community relations liason Lee said it had to be less than 259 words. I wrote it the next day

 “Dr. Ted” is an orthodontist practicing on Remsen Street in Downtown Brooklyn since February 23, 1976, and as such, has treated 6000 adults and children using braces that .go on the front of the teeth, the back of the teeth and that are removable and invisible.   On the other hand, he has  been a BCAT producer since May 23, 2008, and as such aired on BCAT on June 25, a 56-minute documentary film entitled "The Development and Application of Orthodontic Jaw Wiring for Weight Loss", (see YouTube: and a "weekly" starting on November 20th entitled. ”Dr. Ted Presents:", devoted at first  to helping Brooklynites understand how dentists go about relieving the fear and anxiety people have about visiting the dentist. You can see his work in orthodontics on his incredibly extensive web site at , and his accomplishments at BCAT at:  http:// .  He attributes his accomplishments  to an insatiable curiosity and his consuming love of being first and foremost a student and teacher thoughout his life, as you can see by visiting the web sites noted above--you will not be disappointed, especially if you are now or planning to be either one of his patients or a student at BCAT... Dr, Ted's new home away from home.Photog: Lee Eddy   Added October 25, 2008


Brooklyn Independent Television productions are supported in part by the Independence Community Foundation, and the Brooklyn Delegation of the New York State Assembly.

***The Panasonic AG-HMC80 3MOS AVCCAM HD Shoulder-Mount Camcorder adds solid-state DV recording, XLR inputs, and an ENG form factor to the high-definition imaging capability of the popular AG-HMC40. At the same time, it maintains the smaller camera's bang-for-the-buck affordability by offering a laundry list of professional features unmatched in its class. Utilizing a highly efficient AVCHD codec to record stunning images to SD and SDHC memory cards, the AG-HMC80 gives you a wealth of shooting options, formats, and frame rates to give you exactly the look your application needs--whether that means weddings, events, educational, or even indie filmmaking. With this rock-solid unit perched on your shoulder, you'll have the professional stability--and versatility--every working videographer hopes for.

3MOS Sensor Technology
The progressive 3MOS image sensors record full HD images with an effective motion-picture resolution of 2.51MP. This produces full-raster HD images with high resolution and superb image quality. Because each of the three separate image sensors receives one of the three primary colors of light (red, green and blue), they render more precise images and more faithful colors than the single light-receiving 1MOS sensor.
New HD Lens
With a lens that features 13 elements in 10 groups, the newly developed lens is ideal for full HD recording. The new lens system uses low-dispersion glass and aspherical lenses to reduce color aberration and boost resolution. Use of a special multi-coating process dramatically reduces flare and ghosts. The result is a sharp, crisp, beautifully rendered picture with vivid colors, delicate nuances, and exceptional shading.
12x Optical, 10x Digital Zoom
Even at the 490mm zoom setting (35mm lens equivalent), this advanced 12x optical zoom lens is free of image degradation. Additionally, the AG-HMC80 is equipped with a digital zoom that instantly magnifies the image by any of three fixed values: 2x, 5x or 10x. Use it together with the 12x optical zoom lens and you get super magnification equivalent to a 120x zoom, without the drop in light intensity that happens when using a lens extender.
Optical Image Stabilization (OIS)
Because the hand-shake correction is done by actually driving the lens, there's none of the image degradation that occurs with electronic stabilization. You can capture beautiful, high-quality shots even in situations where hand shake is typically a big problem such as when zooming, shooting indoors in dim lighting, or shooting outdoors at night.
Dynamic Range Stretch
A gamma curve and knee slope are estimated to match the contrast of each pixel and applied in real time. When dark, bright, and intermediate shades are all contained in the same scene, this produces excellent gradation for each shade and minimizes blocked shadows and blown highlights. The images that result are enhanced by a visually wider dynamic range.
High-quality 10.6MP Digital Stills
The new 3MOS sensors also combine with Panasonic's proprietary Quad-Density Pixel Distribution technology to achieve a resolution that is equivalent to 4 times the normal level. The AG-HMC80 captures still images with approx. 10.6-megapixel resolution (in still image mode, 3:2 aspect ratio), which approaches the level of a high-performance digital still camera. For example, you can use it to shoot both motion and still images for a website.
Cine-Like Gamma Curves
Drawing on technologies developed for the VariCam HD camcorders for digital cinema, Panasonic has equipped the AG-HMC80 with advanced gamma functions that address seven different shooting scenarios and enhance your creative abilities. This includes the cine-like gamma, which produces the characteristic warm tone of film recordings.
High Bit Rate, Pro-Use PH Mode
The AG-HMC80 features the image-enhancing PH mode that Panasonic developed exclusively for AVCCAM camera recorders. It delivers a maximum AVCHD bit rate of 24 Mbps (average: 21 Mbps). Designed for professional image production, this mode lets you record 1080/24p and 720 progressive images in addition to 1080/60i from the AG-HMC80's 1920 x 1080 full-raster HD images.
DV Compression Recording Supported
In addition to AVCHD recording, the AG-HMC80 provides DV recording thanks to the application of a number of P2 HD based technologies to this shoulder-type AVCCAM. This means that you can continue using your present editing system just as it is. Images are recorded onto an SD Memory Card, for greater efficiency than conventional tape-based recording.
Large-capacity SDHC Memory Card
Unlike with videotape, there's no need for cueing with the SDHC memory card because recording automatically begins in a blank section of memory. Nor do you have to worry about accidentally recording over important footage. You can delete unwanted clips instantly right on the spot to preserve memory capacity. Editing after shooting is smooth and easy, with no need for digitizing. The tiny SDHC Memory Card is durable, too. Its operating range is from -13-185°F, so you can stop worrying about harsh temperatures or condensation while never having to deal with dropouts or clogged heads.
Solid-state Recording Functions
  • Shot Mark: To simplify shot selection, you can add a mark to the thumbnail images of each clip. You can then display and play only the clips that have shot marks.
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  • Last Clip Delete: Only the most recently recorded clip is deleted with this one-touch function, adding practical convenience to everyday operation. It can be assigned as a User button function if desired.
  • Metadata Recording: The date, camera operator, location, title and other information can be added to the video data.
Three DV Screen Sizes
The AG-HMC80 has three modes for shooting and recording in DV mode. It can be selected from Side crop, Letter box or Squeeze.
2.7" Wide-screen EVF/LCD Monitor
The 230,000-pixels (approx.) electronic viewfinder (EVF) lets you check even fine details in the image. Raising the viewfinder instantly switches it to a 2.7 inches wide LCD monitor, so you can easily check the result after shooting. Plus, the viewfinder tilts up or down, and slides to the right or left, to provide the optimal position for use.
LCD Monitor Thumbnail View
Image data is recorded as a file for each scene. Thumbnail images and file information are automatically attached to each file to enable smooth, easy confirmation and deletion of files displayed on the LCD monitor.
Manual Focus Ring
The manual focus ring can be used to control the iris too, by switching the Focus Ring (Focus/Iris) selector. Use it whichever way best fits the shooting situation. For example, you can set the camera to Auto Focus and use the manual focus ring to control the zooming. You can also add backlight correction or spotlight correction to the auto aperture function.
Waveform Monitor Display
A horizontal analysis of the input signal's brightness level can be displayed on the monitor. This lets you adjust the standard black and white levels while checking the Waveform Monitor (WFM), making it easy to get highly accurate adjustments.
HD Focus Assist
There are multiple focus assist functions on the AG-HMC80, including both the standard center zoom, as well as a focus bar. Additional focus assists include a face detection, which recognizes faces near the center of the screen and focuses on them.
Interval Recording
You can make automatic, intermittent recordings at set intervals from one frame per second to one frame every two minutes. For example, use Interval REC to record operations at a construction site, to shoot sunsets, or to capture time-lapse recordings of growing plants.
Time Stamp
You can insert time and date information into the video signal. This could be convenient, for example, when observing animals over an extended period, in certain academic uses, in surveillance, court reporting, legal depositions or law enforcement applications.
Slow Shutter and Syncro Scan
The slow shutter function uses image accumulation to allow shutter speeds with frame rates reduced by half or more. The accumulation method provides bright-color images with less noise than those captured using conventional gain-up, so you get the higher sensitivity needed for nighttime shooting without illumination. And the Synchro Scan function is ideal for capturing images on monitors.
XLR Line/Microphone Input
The AG-HMC80 comes equipped with a built-in stereo microphone and with XLR-type audio input terminals (2 channels, mic/line switchable, 48V compatible) on the rear panel. You can switch audio channels 1 and 2 separately to either line or front microphone input, which is especially useful when recording interviews or narration. In addition, an external microphone terminal (3.5mm stereo mini jack) is equipped.
SD Downconversion
The AG-HMC80 is equipped with HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) output, component video outputs and composite output (BNC), allowing HD images to be down-converted and output as Standard Definition images while they are being recorded or played. At the same time, a 16:9 or 4:3 aspect ratio can be selected for Side crop, Letter box, or Squeeze images. Audio output (RCA terminal) enables a wide variety of applications, such as viewing on an external monitor or Standard Definition dubbing.
HDMI Output Terminal
The AG-HMC80 is equipped with an HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) output terminal for digital transferring of high-quality HD video and audio signals.
USB 2.0 (Type B)
The standard USB terminal (Type B) allows the AG-HMC80 to connect to a Windows PC/Mac in device mode. This lets a Windows PC/Mac installed with the provided AVCCAM Viewer software to upload, copy, and write HD video files, as well as transfer them to AVCHD-compatible editing software for HD production.

DV files can also be transferred via USB 2.0, when the camera recorder is set in AVCHD mode.

DV Terminal Provided as a Standard Feature
The AG-HMC80 has an IEEE 1394-compliant DV (6-pin) output terminal. Simply connect it to an existing DV nonlinear editor for transmitting its DV compression stream output.